United Arab Emirates (UAE) Labor Law 2013

UAE. LABOUR LAW 2013

FEDERAL LAW NO. (8) OF 1980

LABOUR LAW AND ITS AMENDMENTS

2001
– 1 –

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter I
* Definitions and General Provisions ……………………………………….. 1-5

Chapter II
Employment of Employees, Juveniles and Women
Section 1
Employment of Workers …………………………………………………….. 5-8
Section 2
Employment of Juveniles …………………………………………………….. 8-9
Section 3
Employment of Women ……………………………………………………. 9-11
Section 4
Common Provisions for Employment of Juveniles ………………………….. 11
and Women

Chapter III
Employment – Contracts, – Records – & – Remuneration
Section 1
* Individual Employment Contracts ……………………………………….. 12-13
Section 2
Vocational Training Contract ……………………………………………… 13-16
Section 3
* Records and Files ………………………………………………………….. 16-17
Section 4
* Remuneration ……………………………………………………………… 18-20

Chapter IV
Working Hours and Leaves
Section 1
Working Hours …………………………………………………………….. 20-22
Section 2
* Leaves ………………………………………………………………………. 22-25

Chapter V
Safety, Protection, and Their Health and Social Care
of Employees ………………………………………………………………. 25-28

Chapter VI
* Disciplinary Rules ………………………………………………………… 28-30

– 2 –

Chapter VII
Termination of Employment Contract and End of
Service Remuneration
Section 1
* Termination of Employment Contract ……………………………………. 31-38
Section 2
* End of Service Remuneration …………………………………………….. 38-40

Chapter VIII
Indemnity For Labour
Accidents and Occupational Diseases …………………………………… 40-44

Chapter IX
Collective Labour Disputes ………………………………………………. 44-47

Chapter X
Labour Inspection ………………………………………………………… 47-50

Chapter XI
* Penalties …………………………………………………………………… 51-52

Chapter XII
Concluding Provisions ……………………………………………………. 52-53

Schedule 1
Occupational Diseases …………………………………………………….. 54-56
Schedule 2
Permanent Disability Compensation Assessment ……………………….. 57-58
Schedule 3
Terms and Provisions Governing the Distribution …………………………… 59
of the Death Compensation among the family members of the
Deceased Employee
FEDERAL LAW NO. (8) OF 1980
REGARDING THE ORGANIZATION OF LABOUR RELATIONS

We, Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan, President of the United Arab Emirates; After
perusal of the provisions of the provisional Constitution; and Law No. 1 of 1972
regarding the competence of Ministries, powers of Ministers and Laws bringing
amendments thereto; and

In accordance with the proposal of the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs; the
approval of the Council of Minsters and the Federal National Council as ratified by
the Federal Supreme Council, decree as follows:

CHAPTER 1
DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS
1. DEFINITIONS

ARTICLE (1)
for the implementation of the provisions of this Law, the following terms and
expressions shall have the meanings opposite thereto unless the context requires
otherwise:

“Employer” : Any natural or juridical person employing one
or more workers in consideration of a
remuneration of any kind whatsoever.

“Worker” : Any male or female person who receives
remuneration of any kind for work performed
thereby in the services of an employer and under
his management or control, even if the employee
is off employer’s sight. This meaning shall also
apply to officials and employees who are in the
service of the employer and are subject to the
provisions hereof.

“Establishment” : Any economic, technical, industrial or

commercial unit in which workers are employed
and the objectives of which are to produce or
market commodities or to provide services of
any kind.
– 2 –

“Employment Contract” : Any Agreement, whether for a limited or for an
unlimited period, concluded between an
employer and an employee under which the
latter undertakes to work in the service of the
employer and under his management or control
against a remuneration payable to him by the
employer.

“Work” : Any human effort, be it intellectual, technical or
physical, extended against a remuneration
whether the said work is permanent or
temporary.

“Temporary Work” : Work which is by nature to be executed or
completed within a specific period of time.

“Agricultural Work” : Work involving soil ploughing, cultivation, and
harvesting of any kind of crops as well as
breeding of cattle, poultry, silkworms, bees and
the like.

“Continuous Service” : Uninterrupted service with the same employer

“Remuneration”
*
or his lawful successor from the date of
commencement of the service.
: Remuneration is whatever is given to the
employee in consideration of his services under
the employment contract, whether in cash or in
kind, payable annually, monthly, weekly, daily,
hourly, or by piece-meal or pro rata to the
production or as a commission.

The remuneration includes the high cost of

*
Amended by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
living allowance, and any benefit given to the
employee in reward for his honesty or
efficiency, provided always that these amounts
– 3 –

BASIC REMUNERATION
*
are prescribed in the Company bylaws or in the
employment contract, or normally practiced or
granted to the employees, until they have been
regarded by these as an integral part of the
remuneration rather than a donation.

It is the pay provided for in the employment
contract during its validity between both parties.
Allowances whatsoever are not included in this
remuneration.

“Employment Injury” : Any of the occupational diseases listed in the
schedule attached hereto or any other accident
sustained by the worker during the performance
or as a result of his work. Any accident
sustained by the worker on his way to or back
from his work shall be deemed an employment
injury provided that the trip to or from the place
of work is made directly, without delay, default
or diversion from the normal route.

“Labour Department” : Branches affiliated to the Ministry of Labour,
having competence to look into Labour Matters
in the Emirates, Members of the Federation.

2. GENERAL PROVISIONS

ARTICLE (2)
The Arabic Language is the one to be used in all records, contracts, files, statements
and other documents as may be provided for in this Law or in any orders or
regulations issued in implementation of the provisions hereof. The Use of Arabic shall
also be compulsory in instructions and circulares issued by the employer to his
employees. If a foreign language besides the Arabic language is used, the Arabic
language shall prevail over other texts.

*
Amended by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
– 4 –

ARTICLE (3)
*

The provisions of this Law are not applicable to the following categories:

a) Officials, employees and workers of the Federal Government, Governmental
Departments of the Member Emirates of the State, Officials, employees and
workers of municipalities as well as other officials, employees and workers,
working in Federal and local public Departments and organizations, as well as
the officials, employees and workers appointed for Governmental Federal and
Local Projects.

b) Members of the Armed Forces of Police and Security.

c) Domestic servants working in Private residences and the like.

d) Workers employed in Agriculture or pastures, other than those persons
employed in the agricultural corporations engaged in processing their products
or those permanently engaged in operating or repairing mechanical machines
required for Agriculture.

ARTICLE (4)
All amounts payable to the employee or his beneficiaries under this Law shall have
lien on all the employer’s movable and immovable properties. And payment thereof
shall be made immediately after payment of any legal expenses, sums due to the
public treasury and Sharia alimony awarded to wife and children.

ARTICLE (5)
Cases filed by employees or their beneficiaries under this Law shall be exempted from
court fees at all stages of litigation and execution and shall be expeditiously heard. In
the event of non-acceptance or dismissal of the action, the court may order the
Plaintiff to pay all or part of the expenses.

ARTICLE (6)
**

Without prejudice to the provisions concerning the collective labour disputes,
stipulated hereunder, if the employer, worker or any beneficiary thereof lodges claim

*
Amended by Federal Law No. (24) of 1981 and amended for the second time by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
**
Amended by Federal Law No. 12 of 1986.
– 5 –

concerning any of the rights occurring to any of them under this law, he is required to
apply to the concerned Labour Department, and the latter shall call both parties and
will take whatever is considered necessary for settlement of dispute between them
amicably. But if amicable settlement has not been reached, the said department must
refer the dispute to the competent Court within a fortnight from the date of application
being submitted to it. The case so referred should be accompanied with a memo
giving a summary of the dispute, evidence of both parties and the comments of the
Department.

Within three days from date of receipt of the application the Court will fix a hearing
for the case, and a summon to this effect will be served upon both parties of the
dispute. The Court may request a representative to appear for the Department of
Labour to explain the contents of the memo submitted by it.

In all cases no claim for any rights due according to the provisions of this Law will be
heard after lapse of one year from date of its maturity, neither will the action be heard
if the procedures provided for in this Article have not been complied with.

ARTICLE (7)
Terms inconsistent with the provisions of this Law including those whose effective
date may precede the enforcement of this Law shall, unless they are proved more
beneficial to the worker, be deemed null and void.

ARTICLE (8)
Dates and periods stipulated herein shall be construed according to the gregorian
calendar. In the application of the provisions of this Law a calendar year is 365 days
and month is 30 days unless stated otherwise in the employment contract.

CHAPTER II
EMPLOYMENT OF WORKERS, JUVENILES AND WOMEN
SECTION I
EMPLOYMENT OF WORKERS

ARTICLE (9)
Work is a right of the United Arab Emirates Nationals. Others may not by employed
in the United Arab Emirates except as provided for in this Law and its executive
orders.

– 6 –

ARTICLE (10)
In the event of non-availability of national workers, preference shall be given to:
1.Arab workers who are nationals of an Arab Country.
2.Workers of other nationalities.

ARTICLE (11)
A Section at the Labour Department shall be created for the employment of nationals
and shall be vested with the following functions:

a. Supply of suitable employment opportunities for nationals.
b. Giving assistance to employers to satisfy their requirements of national
workers when needed.
c. Registering unemployed nationals and those who seek better jobs in a special
register. The registration shall be made as requested by the workers and
certificates of registration shall be granted free of charge on the day of
submitting the applications. The registration certificate shall be given a serial
number and shall include the applicant’s name, age, place of residence,
occupation, qualifications and past experience.

ARTICLE (12)
Unemployed national employees may be recruited by employers who must notify the
Labour Department of the same in writing within fifteen days from date of
employment. The notice shall include the employee’s name, age, the date on which he
assumes his duties, the remuneration fixed for him, the type of work assigned to him
and the serial number of the certificate of registration.

ARTICLE (13)
Employees who are not UAE nationals may be employed in the United Arab Emirates
only after approval of the Labour Department and the obtainment of a work permit in
accordance with the procedures decided by Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.
Work permits may only be granted if the following conditions are fulfilled.

a. That the employee has the professional competence of educational
qualifications that are needed by the State.

b. That the employee has lawfully entered the Country and complies with the
conditions stipulated by the residence regulations in force in the State.

– 7 –

Article (14)
The Labour Department may not approve the employment of employees who are not
UAE nationals unless its records show that none of the unemployed national
employees who are registered with the Labour Section is qualified for the job.

ARTICLE (15)
The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs may cancel work permits granted to nonnationals
in
any
of
the
following
cases:

a.

If the employee remains unemployed for a period exceeding three consecutive
months.

b. If the employee fails to meet one or more of the conditions on basis of which
the permit is granted.

c. If the Ministry is satisfied that a certain national employee is qualified to
replace the employee; in this case the employee shall continue to carry out his
work until the expiry of his contract of employment or his work permit,
whichever occurs earlier.

ARTICLE (16)
A special Section shall be established at the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs for
the employment of non-nationals and the functions of said Section shall be regulated
by a Ministerial Resolution.

ARTICLE (17)
No natural person or body-corporate is allowed to work as an agent or supplier of
non-national employees unless he has a license to do so.

However, such license may be issued if necessity so requires only to nationals by
order of the Minister of Labour. A license shall be valid for one year subject of
renewal, and the licensee shall be under the supervision and control of the Ministry.
Said Licenses may not be granted if an Employment Office pertaining to the Ministry
or to an authority approved by the Ministry is already operating in the area and is able
to act as intermediary to supply labour.

ARTICLE (18)
It is not permissible for any licensed labour agent or supplier to demand or accept
from any worker whether before or after his recruitment, any commission or material
– 8 –

reward in consideration for arranging such recruitment, nor may he obtain from him
any expenses except as may be decided or approved by the Ministry of Labour and
Social Affairs.

The persons supplied by a recruitment agent or a labour supplier shall, immediately
upon joining the service of an employer, be considered employees of that employer
and shall be entitled to all the rights enjoyed by the employees of the establishment in
which they are employed. The relations between such employees and the employer
shall be direct and without any interference from the labour agent whose task and
relation with them shall cease to exist as soon as they are introduced to and employed
by the employer.

ARTICLE (19)
The Minister of Labour and Social Affairs shall determine all rules, formalities and
forms used by private and public labour offices as well as cooperation and
coordination methods to be adopted between the various activities of these offices and
the conditions under which licenses may be issued for the establishment of private
employment offices or agencies or labour suppliers. Lists showing professional
categories to be used as basis for placement operation shall also be defined by the
Minister of Labour and Social Affairs.

SECTION 2
EMPLOYMENT OF JUVENILES

ARTICLE (20)
It is prohibited to employ a juvenile of either sex before he/she completes fifteen years
of age.

ARTICLE (21)
Before a juvenile is employed, the employer shall obtain the following documents
from him/her and keep them in the juvenile’s personal file:
1. A birth certificate of an official extract thereof or an age estimation certificate
issued by a competent medical officer and endorsed by the competent Health
Authorities.

2. A certificate issued by a competent medical officer and duly attested to the
effect that the juvenile concerned is medically fit for the job.

– 9 –

3. A written consent signed by the juvenile’s guardian, or custodian.

ARTICLE (22)
The Employer shall keep a special register for the juveniles at the work premises,
showing the juvenile’s name, full name of juvenile’s guardian or custodian, place of
residence, date of employment and job title.

ARTICLE (23)
Juveniles may not be employed at night in industrial projects. The term “night” shall
mean a period of not less than twelve consecutive hours including the period from 8
p.m to 6 a.m.

ARTICLE (24)
Juveniles may not be employed in jobs which are considered hazardous, exhausting or
detrimental to health as may be decided by the Minister of Labour after consulting
with the competent authorities.

ARTICLE (25)
The maximum number of actual working hours for juveniles shall be six hours per
day. During working hours one or more break times should be given for rest, meals
or prayer purposes provided that such time should not be less than one hour. Such
time or times have to be determined in a way that juveniles may not work
consecutively over four hours. A juvenile may not remain continuously over seven
hours at the place of work.

ARTICLE (26)
Under no circumstances, may juveniles by instructed to work overtime, stay in the
employment premises beyond the hours of work fixed for them or asked to work on
holidays.

SECTION 3
EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
ARTICLE (27)
Women may not be required to work at night. The term “night” means a period of not
less than eleven consecutive hours including the period from 10 p.m to 7 a.m.

ARTICLE (28)
The following cases shall be excepted from the clause prohibiting women to work at
– 10 –

night.
a. In the event where the work in the establishment is stopped due to force
majeure.
b. Work in responsible managerial and technical jobs.
c. Work in medical and other services as may be decided by the Minister of
Labour and Social Affairs if the working woman does not normally carry out a
manual job.

ARTICLE (29)

Women may not be employed where jobs are hazardous, harmful or detrimental to
health or morals, and in such other jobs as may be decided by the Minister of Labour
and Social Affairs after consulting with the competent authorities.

ARTICLE (30)

A working woman is entitled to maternity leave with full pay for a period of forty five
days including the time before and after delivery, provided that her continuous period
of service with the employer should not be less than a year, but if a working woman
has not completed the said period, the maternity leave shall be with half pay.

A working woman, on the expiry of the maternity leave, may discontinue work
without pay for a maximum period of one hundred consecutive or intermittent days if
such absence is due to illness which does not enable her to resume work. Such illness
shall be evidenced by a medical certificate issued by a medical authority attested by
the competent health authority or endorsed by such authorities to the effect that the
illness resulted from pregnancy or delivery.

Leave provided for in the preceding two paragraphs shall not be computed as part of
other leaves.

ARTICLE (31)
In addition to any prescribed rest period, a working woman nursing her child shall,
during the eighteen months following the date of delivery, be entitled to two
additional breaks each day for this purpose, neither of which shall exceed half an
hour.

These two additional periods shall be considered as working hours and shall not cause
– 11 –

any reduction of remuneration.

ARTICLE (32)
A working woman shall be entitled to the same wage as that of a working man, if she
does the same work.

SECTION 4

COMMON PROVISIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT OF
JUVENILES & WOMEN

ARTICLE (33)
The Minister of Labour and Social Affairs may decide to exempt charity and
educational organizations from all or part of the provisions stipulated in the two
preceding sections of this Chapter if the objects of such organizations are to provide
vocational rehabilitation or training to juveniles or women on condition that the bylaws

of these organizations provide for the nature of the work to be carried out by
juveniles and women, the working hours and conditions in a manner that
commensurate with the actual potentiality of women and juveniles.

ARTICLE (34)

Criminal liability in respect of the enforcement of the provisions provided for in
Sections 2 and 3 of this Chapter shall be incurred by:

a. The Employers of their representative.

b. The Guardians or trustees of juveniles, husbands, guardians or trustees of
minor women if they have agreed to the employment of women and juveniles
contrary to the provisions of the Law.

CHAPTER III
EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS, RECORDS AND REMUNERATION

SECTION 1
INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS

– 12 –

ARTICLE (35)
Subject to the provisions of Article 2, the employment contract shall be made in
duplicate, on copy to be given to the employee and the other to the employer.

In absence of a written contract all of its conditions may be proved by all legal means
of evidence.

ARTICLE (36)
The employment contract shall in particular specify the date of its conclusion, the date
on which work begins, nature and place of work, duration of the contract in the case
of contract with limited period and the amount of the remuneration.

ARTICLE (37)
*

The employee may be appointed for a probationary period not to exceed six months,
and the employer may terminate the services of the employee during this period
without giving a notice or end of service remuneration. Appointment of the employee
on probation basis in the service of one particular employer may not be made more
than once. However if the employee passed the probationary period satisfactorily, and
remained in service, such period of service shall be computed in the period of his
service.

ARTICLE (38)
An employment contract may either be for a limited or an unlimited period. If it is for
a limited period, such period shall not exceed four years and the contract may with
mutual agreement be renewed one or more times for similar or shorter period/periods.

In the event of renewal of the contract the new period/periods are deemed to be an
extension of the original period and shall be added thereto in calculation of the
employee’s total period of service.

ARTICLE (39)
An employment contract is considered a contract for an unlimited period effective
from the day of its commencement in any of the following cases:

1.If it is not concluded in writing .

*
Amended by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
– 13 –

2. If it is made for an unlimited period.

3. If it is made in writing for a limited period and continues to be applied by both
parties after lapse of its period without a written agreement between them.

4. If it is concluded for the performance of a specific job for which no period is
fixed, or if the job by its nature calls for renewal, and has remained in force
despite the completion of work agreed to.

ARTICLE (40)
If both parties have continued to apply the contract after the lapse of its original term
or completion of work agreed to, without an express agreement, it should be
understood that the original contract has been extended under the same conditions
except for condition regrading its duration.

ARTICLE (41)
If an employer entrusts another party with the performance of any of his basic works
or any part thereof, this latter becomes solely responsible for any entitlement due to
the workers executing the subsidiary work under the provisions of this Law.

SECTION 2
VOCATIONAL TRAINING CONTRACT

ARTICLE (42)
A vocational training contract is a contract under which the proprietor of an
establishment undertakes to equip an individual who attained at least twelve years of
age with full vocational training in compliance with the vocation principles. The
apprentice shall undertake to serve the employer during the training period under such
terms and for such period as may be agreed. The training contract shall be made in
writing, otherwise it shall be null and void. Also the employer or any person giving
the training must be adequately qualified and experienced in the vocation or trade in
which the employee is to be trained. Furthermore, technical facilities and conditions
required for teaching the vocation or trade must be made available at the
establishment itself.

ARTICLE (43)
A trainee who attains legal age shall sign the contract himself. It is not permissible for
– 14 –

any one who did not attain 18 years of age to enter into training contract directly by
himself, but shall be represented by his natural or legal guardian or trustee.

ARTICLE (44)
1. A training contract shall be made in at least three copies, one of which shall be
deposited with the competent labour department for registration and
authentication purposes. Each of the two parties shall retain one authenticated
company.

2. If the training contract which must be registered contains any provisions
contrary to the Law or the regulation and orders issued in implementation
thereof, the competent labour department may require the parties thereof to
remedy thereto.

3. If the competent labour department does not make any comment or objection
within a period of one month from the date on which the training contract is
deposited therewith, the contract shall be deemed de facto endorsed from date
of its deposit.

ARTICLE (45)
The training contract shall contain details on the identity of parties thereto and/or their
representatives as the case may be together with the procedures, period, phases and
the vocation subject of the training.

ARTICLE (46)
The employer shall give the trainee sufficient time for theoretical education and shall
throughout the period fixed in the contract train him on the proper methods and skills
of the vocation for which he is employed; the employer shall also grant the trainee a
certificate on completion of each phase of training in accordance with the provisions
contained in this Section and a final certificate on completion of the training period.
The final certificate shall be endorsable by the competent Labour Department in
accordance with such rules and procedures as may be determined by the Minister of
Labour and Social Affairs.

ARTICLE (47)
The training contract may contain an undertaking by the employer to the effect that on
completion of his training he shall work for the employer or at the establishment
where he has been trained for a period not exceeding twice the training period. The
– 15 –

employer may undertake in the training contract to employ the employee on
completion of the latter’s period of training.

ARTICLE (48)
The Contract shall determine remuneration to be paid for each phase of training, and
the remuneration for the final phase shall not be less than the minimum salary
prescribed for a similar work and shall not in any case whatsoever be fixed on piecemeal
basis
or
on
production
basis.

ARTICLE (49)
A trainee who is under 18 years of age shall before commencement of training
undergo medical examination to ascertain his health condition and ability to carry out
the duties of the vocation for which he wishes to be trained, should particular physical
and health conditions be required. The medical report should certify that the trainee
candidate satisfies the physical and health conditions required.

ARTICLE (50)
The Minister of Labour & Social Affairs can decide to regulate training for vocations
and trades which require apprenticeship and fix the period of training of such
vocations and trades, theoretical and practical training programs, the conditions of
examination and the certificate given on completion of the training period.

The Minister shall give his decision in this respect after taking the opinion of the
public establishments concerned. In all cases the Minister may consult one or more
experts in the profession or vacation where apprenticeship is required to be regulated.

ARTICLE (51)
The Minister of Labour and Social Affairs may decide to establish vocational training
centers independently or in co-operation with national, foreign or international
vocational or charitable bodies.

The decision to establish a center shall determine the vocation for which training is to
be provided, condition for admission to the center, the theoretical and practical
curricula, the rules of vocational examinations and certificates and any other matters
necessary for better performance of the center.

ARTICLE (52)

– 16 –

The Minister of Labour and Social Affairs may impose upon such establishments,
companies and proprietors of industries, vocations and trades as may be determined
by him to accept a certain number or a certain percentage of national trainees for
work under such terms and conditions and for such periods as may be decided by the
Minister of Labour. Moreover, the Minister of Labour may require said
establishments, companies, and proprietors of industries, vocations and trades as may
be determined by him to accept for training purposes and additional practical
experience a certain number of a certain percentage of students of industrial and
vocational institutes and centers students under such terms and conditions and for such
periods as may be agreed with the management of the establishment concerned.

SECTION 3
RECORDS AND FILES

ARTICLE (53)
*

Each employer employing five or more employees shall abide by the following :

1. He shall keep a special file for each employee, showing his name, profession,
age, nationality, place of residence, marital status, effective date of service,
pay and whatever changes effected on the pay, penalties invoked against him,
injuries and vocational diseases sustained by him, date of service termination
and causes of that.

2. He shall prepare a card for each employee and keep it in his personal file. The
card is to be divided into three parts, one for annual leaves, the second for
sick leaves and the third for other leaves. The employer or whoever acts for
him shall record in this card any leaves obtained by the employee, and it shall
be referred to this card whenever the employee applies for leave.

ARTICLE (54)
*

Each employer employing fifteen or more employees shall keep in each place of
business or branch where he practices business, the following records and documents:

*
Amended by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
*
Amended by Federal Law No. 12 of 1986.
– 17 –

1. Register of wages: In this register names of employees are to be listed
showing the dates for joining of service, and fixing the amount of daily,
weekly or monthly pay, along with its benefits, or piece-meal pay, or the
commission to each one of them, his working days, and the date for his final
departure from work.

2. Register of work injuries: All work injuries accidents and vocational diseases
sustained by the employees shall be recorded in this register as soon as they
are brought to the knowledge of employer.

3. The Regulations of the Work: These regulations shall particularly define the
daily working hours, weekly holiday, other holidays, necessary measures and
precautions to be taken for avoiding work injuries, and fire hazards. They
shall be displayed at visible place in the premises of business. Such regulations
and any amendments thereof, will not take effect, unless they have been
approved by the Labour Department within thirty days from the date they are
submitted thereto.

4. Penalties Sheet: It has to be displayed at a visible place in the premises of
business, listing the penalties that may be invoked on the defaulting
employees, and citing the conditions and cases for putting them into operation.
Enforcement of penalties and any amendments thereof, should be subject to
approval by the Ministry of Labour within thirty day from the date of
submitting the same thereto.

SECTION 4
REMUNERATION

ARTICLE (55)
Remuneration shall be paid on a working day and at the place of work in the lawfully
circulating national currency.

ARTICLE (56)
Employees engaged on yearly or monthly remuneration shall be paid at least once a
month. All other employees shall receive their remuneration at least once every two
weeks.

ARTICLE (57)
– 18 –

The daily remuneration of an employee on piece pay shall be computed on the basis of
the average pay received for actual days of work during the period of six months prior
to the termination of service.

ARTICLE (58)
Settlement of the remuneration payable to employees irrespective of its amount or
nature shall be evidenced only in writing, by declaration or oath. Any agreement to
the contrary shall be null and void even if made before the effective date of this Law.

ARTICLE (59)
No worker shall be obliged to buy food or other commodities from specific shops or
products manufactured by the employer.

ARTICLE (60)
Any amounts of money may not be deducted from the employee’s remuneration to
recover particular rights, except in the following cases:

a. Repayment of advances or amounts of money paid to the employee in excess
of his entitlement, provided that deduction in this case may not exceed 10% of
the employee’s periodic pay.

b. Installments which are payable by law by the employees from their
remuneration, such as social security and insurance schemes.

c. Subscriptions of the employees in the saving fund or advances due for
payment to the fund.

d. Installments in respect of any social scheme or other privileges or services
provided by the employer and approved by the Labour Department.

e. Fines imposed upon the employee due to offenses committed by him.

f. Any debts payable in execution of court judgment provided that not more than

a quarter of the employee’s pay shall be deducted. In the event of numerous
debts or creditors, half of the remuneration at the most may be deducted and
the sums of money attached shall be divided pro rata among beneficiaries after
payment of any legal alimony amounting to one quarter of the remuneration.
– 19 –

ARTICLE (61)
*

If the employee has caused the loss, damage or destruction to any tools, machines,
equipment or products owned by or kept in custody of the employer, to the extent that
involvement of the employee was due to his fault or violation of the employer’s
instructions, then the employer has the option to cut from the employee’s pay the
amount required for rectifying error or restoring the item to its original condition,
provided that the amount to be deducted shall not exceed five day pay each month.

The employer can apply to the competent court through the concerned Labour
Department for authorizing him to deduct more than this amount if the employee is
financially sound or has another source of money.

ARTICLE (62)
The employer may not transfer an employee from the monthly pay to the daily,
weekly, hourly or piece work pay except with the latter’s written consent.

ARTICLE (63)
The minimum salary and the cost of living allowances payable generally or with
respect to a certain area or a particular profession, shall be fixed by a Federal Decree
issued pursuant to proposal made by the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs and
approved by the Council of Ministers. The Minister’s proposal shall be made either
for description or reconsideration of the minimum pay after consulting with the
competent authorities and trade agencies if any for both employers and employees
based on studies and schedules of the cost of living price fluctuations prepared by
concerned authorities in the State. Such minimum pay shall in all cases be enough for
the employee’s basic needs and to secure means of living.

ARTICLE (64)
Minimum salary and its amendments shall come into operation from date of
publication of the specific decree in the Official Gazette.

CHAPTER IV
WORKING HOURS AND LEAVES
SECTION 1
WORKING HOURS

*
Amended by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
– 20 –

ARTICLE (65)
The maximum normal working hours for adult employees shall be eight hours per day
or forty eight hours per week. However, working hours for the employees of
commercial establishments, hotels, restaurants, watchmen and similar operations may
be increased to nine hours per day as determined by the Minister of Labour.
Likewise, working hours per day in respect of hazardous work or work detrimental to
health, may be decreased by decision of the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs.
During the month of Ramadan, normal working hours shall be reduced by two hours.

Time spent by the employee in transport form his residence to the place of work shall
not be included in the working hours.

ARTICLE (66)
Daily working hours shall be regulated in a way that no employee shall work over
five hours consecutively without break times for rest, food and prayer with a total not
less than one hour, provided that such times shall not be counted in working hours. In
factories and workshops where work is rotated on night and day shift basis, or in
places of business where technical and economic reasons necessitate round the clock
work, break times for rest, food and prayer shall be determined by the Minister.

ARTICLE (67)
If circumstances of work necessitate that an employee works more than the normal
working hours, the extra time shall be considered overtime, for which the employee
shall receive a remuneration equal to that corresponding to his normal working hours
plus an extra of at least 25 percent of such remuneration.

ARTICLE (68)
If circumstance of work necessitate that an employee works overtime between 9.00
p.m and 4.00 a.m., he shall be entitled to normal working hours pay plus an increase
equal to at least 50% of such pay.

ARTICLE (69)
Actual overtime may not exceed two hours per day unless work in necessary to
prevent substantial loss or serious accident or to eliminate or alleviate its effects.

ARTICLE (70)
Friday is the normal weekly holiday for all employees except for those on daily wage
– 21 –

bases.

If the employee is required to work on Friday he shall be granted one day off for rest
or be paid the basic pay for normal working hours plus 50% increase at least of such
pay.

ARTICLE (71)
Except for labourers on daily wage an employee may not work on more than two
Fridays successively.

ARTICLE (72)
The provisions of this Section shall not apply to the following categories:
1. Persons holding responsible senior posts in the management or supervision if
holders of such titles are vested with the authorities or employers over
employees, and such category is to be determined by the Minister of Labour
and Social Affairs.

2. Ship crews and sea men who work under special service conditions due to the
nature of their work, excluding Sea Port workers who are engaged in loading
and off-loading and related works.

ARTICLE (73)
A Notice Board showing the weekly closing day, working hours and rest times for all
categories of employees must be fixed at conspicuous place on the main gate used as
entrance by employees and in the premises of work and a copy of the notice should be
submitted to the competent Labour Department.

If the weekly closure system is not applied by the place of business, a notice showing
the weekly rest day for each category of employees shall be fixed by the employer at
the places referred to in the preceding paragraph.

SECTION 2
LEAVES

ARTICLE (74)

Each employee is entitled to an official leave with full pay on the following occasions:

– 22 –

– Hijra New Year. One day
– Christian New Year. One day
– Eid Al Fitr Two days
– Eid Al Adha and Waqfa day Three days
– Birthday of the Prophet One day
– Ascension Day One day
– National Day One day

ARTICLE (75)
The employee must be granted an annual leave during each year of service which may
not be less than:

1. Two days per month in respect of any employee with more than six months
and less than one year of service.
2. Thirty days per annum in respect of any employee whose period of service
exceeds on year.

In the event of termination of an employee’s service he shall be entitled to an annual
leave for the fractions of the last year of service.

ARTICLE (76)
The employer may at his discretion determine the date for commencement of annual
leaves and, when necessary, he may decide to divide the leave in two parts at the
most, except in cases of juveniles where vacation may not be divided in parts.

ARTICLE (77)
*

The annual leave period is deemed to include such holidays as prescribed by law or as
agreed to, and any other periods of sickness, occurred during this leave and is
considered as part thereof.

ARTICLE (78)
*

The employee shall receive his basic pay in addition to housing allowance, if any for
the annual leave days. However if the exigencies of work necessitate that the
employee works during his annual leave in whole or in part, and the period of leave
during which he has worked, has not been carried forward to the next year, the

*
Amended by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
– 23 –

employer ought to pay him his wage in addition to cash in lieu of leave for his
working days based on his basic pay.

ARTICLE (79)
The employee is entitled to receive cash in lieu of annual leave days not availed by
him, if he was dismissed or if he left the service, after the period of notice stipulated
by law. Cash in lieu of leave is calculated on the bases of pay received by the
employee at the time of maturity of such leave.

ARTICLE (80)

Remuneration due to an employee plus that of the approved leave under this law shall
be paid in full by the employer to the employee before the latter’s departure on annual
leave.

ARTICLE (81)
If exigencies of work necessitate that the employee work on holidays or rest days
against which he receives full or partial pay he shall be compensated in lieu thereof
with increase in pay by 50% of his wage, but if he has not been compensated for the
same with a leave, the employer shall pay him an increase to his basic wage
equivalent to 150% of the days of work.

ARTICLE (82)
If the employee falls sick for reasons other than labour injury he must report his
illness within a period of two days at most and the employer must take necessary
measures having him medically checked up to ascertain illness.

ARTICLE (83)
*

1. During the probationary period, the employee is not entitled to any paid sick
leave.

2. If the employee spends over three months after completion of the probationary
period, in the continuous service of employer, and falls sick during this
period, he becomes entitled to a sick leave not more than 90 days either
continuous or intermittent per each year or service, computed as follows:-

*
Amended by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
– 24 –

A. The first fifteen days with full pay.
B. The next thirty days, with half pay.
c. The subsequent period, without pay.

ARTICLE (84)
Pay during sick leave shall not be made if sickness resulted from mis-behaviour of the
employee such as consumption of alcohol or narcotics.

ARTICLE (85)
The employer may terminate the services of an employee who fails to resume his
duties at the end of such leave as stipulated in Article (82), (83) and (84) hereof, and
in such case the employee shall be entitled to his gratuity in accordance with the
provisions of this Law.

ARTICLE (86)
If an employee resigns from service because of illness before the lapse of the first 45
days of the sick leave and the Government Medical Officer or the physician appointed
by the employer justifies the causes of resignation, the employer must pay to the
employee his remuneration due for the period remaining from the first 45 days
referred to above.

ARTICLE (87)
A special leave without pay may be granted for the performance of pilgrimage to the
employee once through-out his service and shall not be counted among other leaves
and may not exceed 30 days.

ARTICLE (88)
*

During the annual leave or sick leave provided for hereunder, the employee may not
work for another Employer; however, if the employer has established that the
employee has done this, he shall have the right to terminate the service of employee
without notice, and to deprive him of the leave pay due to him.

ARTICLE (89)
Subject to the provisions herein contained, every employee who does not report to
duty immediately after expiry of his vacation, he shall be deprived of his pay for the
period of absence commencing from the day following to the date on which the leave

*
Amended by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
– 25 –

has expired.

ARTICLE (90)
Without prejudice to cases where the employer has the right to dismiss the employee
without notice or gratuity as prescribed herein, the employer may not dismiss an
employee or serve him with a notice of dismissal during his leave as is provided for in
this Section.

CHAPTER V
SAFETY, PROTECTION, AND THEIR HEALTH
AND SOCIAL CARE OF THE EMPLOYEES

ARTICLE (91)
Every employer must provide adequate means of protection for the employee from the
hazards of injuries and vocational diseases that may occur during work as well as the
hazards of fire and other hazards arising from use of machines and other tools, and he
must apply all other means of protection as approved by the Ministry of Labour &
Social Affairs, and the employee must use protective equipment and clothing provided
to him for such purpose and he must abide by all instructions of the employer aiming
at his protection from dangers and must not act in a way that may obstruct the
application of said instruction.

ARTICLE (92)

Every employer must display at a conspicuous point in the place of business detailed
instructions concerning methods to prevent fire and protect employees from dangers
while they perform their duties. Said instructions shall read in Arabic and, if
necessary, in another language understood by the employees.

ARTICLE (93)
Each employee has to arrange for one medical aid box(s), supplied with medicines,
bandages disinfectants and other relief aids, to be fixed in a conspicuous place within
the reach of employees and to be used by a specialist in handling first aids, and every
one hundred employees should be provided with an aid box. Each first- aid box shall
be sufficient for every 100 employees.

ARTICLE (94)
Without prejudice to the provisions of by-laws and regulations issued by concerned
– 26 –

government authorities the employer must provide proper cleanliness and ventilation
in each place of business and must provide such places with adequate illumination,
potable water and toilets.

ARTICLE (95)
The employer must appoint one physicians(s) to do full medical checkup at least once
each 6 months regularly for his employees who are exposed to the danger of infection
with any of the occupational diseases reserved in the schedule attached hereto, and to
record the results in his registers and in the personal files of such employees and the
cases of occupational diseases must be reported instantly by the doctors to the
employers and the Labour Department after these become certain through medical and
laboratory analysis. The physician in charge of regular medical check up may ask for
a second medical checkup for any employee who is exposed to occupational diseases
before the lapse of the time limit stated in the para. under this article if the case of the
employee so requires.

ARTICLE (96)
The employer must provide employees with means of medical care according to the
standards decided by the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs in collaboration with
the Minister of Health.

The Minister of Labour and Social Affairs has the capacity in consultation with the
Ministry of Health, to determine the general Measures for health prevention
applicable to all establishments having staff and in particular such measures relating to
safety, illumination, ventilation and dining rooms, as well as supply of potable and
cleaning water and measures relating to purification of atmosphere form dust and
smoke and to stipulate precautionary measures against fire and electric current.

ARTICLE (97)
The employer or his representative at the time of appointment must keep employees
informed of the dangers related to their profession and preventive measures they have
to take. Moreover, the employer must display detailed written instructions in this
respect at places of business.

ARTICLE (98)
The employer or his representative at the time of appointment must keep employees
informed of the dangers related to their profession and preventive measures they have
to take. Moreover, the employer must display detailed written instructions in this
– 27 –

respect at places of business.

ARTICLE (99)
Employers, agents of the employers or any other persons having authority on
employees may not permit entry of any kind of alcoholic drinks into the places of
business for consumption threat, and they may not permit entrance into or stay at the
establishment or any intoxicated person.

ARTICLE (100)
The employee shall abide by instructions and orders related to business safety and
precautions, and adopt precautionary methods and pledge to care for items thereof in
his possession. It is prohibited for an employee to act in any way that may contravene
enforcement of said instructions or misuse methods placed for health and safety
protection of employees or which may cause loss or damage to the same.

ARTICLE (101)
Each employer who employs employees in areas that are remote from cities where
there is no access to normal means of transportation shall provide employees with the
following facilities:

1. Adequate means of transport
2. Adequate accommodation
3. Drinking water
4. Proper foodstuff
5. Medical aid equipment
6. Entertainment and sports amenities.

Areas to which all or part of the provisions of this Article apply shall be stated by
decision of the Minister of Labour & Social Affairs.

With exception of foodstuff, all services referred to in this Article shall be at the
expense of the employer and nothing hereof is to be borne by the employee.

CHAPTER VI
DISCIPLINARY RULES

ARTICLE (102)
Disciplinary penalties which may be imposed by the employer or its agent upon its
– 28 –

employees are as follows:
1. Warning.
2. Fine.
3. Suspension from work with reduced pay for a period not exceeding ten days.
4. Forfeiture of deferment of periodic increment in establishments where such
increments system is applied.
5. Forfeiture or deferment of promotion in establishments where promotion
system is applied.
6. Dismissal from service but reserving right to end of service benefits.
7. Dismissal from service together with forfeiture of all or part of the benefits,
provided that penalties shall not be imposed for reasons other than those
specifically prescribed in Article (120) of this Law.

ARTICLE (103)
The disciplinary code determines the cases where each of the disciplinary penalties
prescribed in the preceding Article may be imposed. The Mister of Labour and Social
Affairs may issue by decision, a model penalty and benefits schedule to guide
employers in setting up their respective regulations in this regard.

ARTICLE (104)
A fine may be a certain amount of money or an amount equal to the remuneration of
the employee for a certain period of time. A fine in respect of a single offence may
not exceed remuneration payable for five days. It is not permissible to deduct within
one month an amount equal to more than five days pay from the employee’s
remuneration in settlement of fines imposed upon him.

ARTICLE (105)
A special register shall be kept where shall be entered all penalties imposed upon
employees showing reason and occasion of penalty, employee’s name and his pay.

A special account shall be made for this purpose and monthly total thereof shall be
allocated for employees’ social welfare in accordance with a decision to be taken by
the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs in this respect.

ARTICLE (106)
Periodical increment may not be forfeited more than once in a year nor may the said
increment be deferred for more than six months.
– 29 –

ARTICLE (107)
No forfeiture of promotion may be made for more than one promotion step. The
punished employee shall be promoted on the next immediate step when such employee
becomes qualified for promotion.

ARTICLE (108)
Financial proceeds collected by the employer as a result of the differences arising
from forfeiture of increment or allowance or delay of the same shall be recorded in a
special register with reasons thereof, name of the employee and amount of his
remuneration. Monthly proceeds of such differences shall be allocated for spending on
employees social welfare as may be decided by the Minister of Labour and Social
Affairs in this regard.

ARTICLE (109)
Disciplinary penalties may not be imposed on an employee who has committed an
offence outside the place of business unless the said act is relevant to the business, the
employer or its manager. Nor is it permitted to apply more than one penalty in respect
of one offence or to combine between disciplinary penalty and deducting part of the
employee’s pay in accordance with the provisions of Article (61) of this Law.

ARTICLE (110)
Any of the penalties prescribed in Article 102 may not be applied on the employee
unless he is notified in writing of the charge taken against him and unless his
statement is heard and his defence is investigated and unless all that is recorded in a
report kept in his personal file.

Penalty shall be noted at the bottom of the said report. The employee shall be notified
in writing of the kind, amount and reasons of penalties and the action taken against
him in case of repetition of the offence.

ARTICLE (111)
An employee may not be charged with a disciplinary offence after lapse of thirty days
from disclosure of the same, nor may a disciplinary penalty be imposed after the lapse
of sixty days from closing of investigation on the offence and finding an evidence
against the employee.

– 30 –

ARTICLE (112)
*

If the employee has been charged with premeditated crime, such as his involvement in
a physical assault or robbery of property or other offenses such as the abuse of
honesty, breach of trust or strikes, the said employee may be temporarily suspended
from work.

If a judgement releases the employee from standing a trial or acquits him he shall be
reinstated to his work and his remuneration for the suspension period be paid to him
in full in cases where his suspension was maliciously contrived by the employer.

CHAPTER VII
TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT
AND
END OF SERVICE REMUNERATION
SECTION 1
TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT

ARTICLE (113)
The employment contract is deemed to be terminated in any of the following cases:
– In the event of mutual consent by both parties to terminate the contract
provided that the employee’s consent is made in writing.
– On expiry of the period specified in the contract unless the contract is
expressly or implicitly extended in accordance with the provisions of this Law.
– At the option of either party in unlimited contracts provided that the provisions
of this Law regarding warnings and acceptable causes for termination of the
contract without abuse are fully complied with.

ARTICLE (114)
A contract of employment shall not expire by reason of death of the employer unless
the subject matter of the contract is related to him in person. However, the contract
shall terminate by reason of death of the employee or in case of his total disability to
perform duties established by a medical report approved by the competent State
Medical Authority.

If partial disability of an employee permits him to perform different duties which

*
Amended by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
– 31 –

conform with his health state, the employer shall transfer the employee, at the latter’s
request, to another job of such other duties and shall pay him the remuneration
normally paid by the employer in similar cases without prejudice to entitlement and
indemnity accrued to the employee in accordance with this Law.

ARTICLE (115)
*

If the employer has terminated an employment contract with a limited period, for
reasons other than those provided for under Article (120) hereof, he becomes liable
for payment of compensation to the employee against damages sustained by him,
provided that the sum of compensation in all events, may not exceed the total pay due
to him for a period of three months or for the remaining period of contract whichever
is shorter, unless the terms of the contract provide otherwise.

ARTICLE (116)
*

If the contract has been terminated on part of the employee, for reasons other that
those provided for under Article (121) hereof, the employee becomes liable for
compensating the employer against losses incurred by him in consequence of contract
termination, provided that the amount of compensation, may not exceed half a
month’s pay for a period of three months or for the remaining period of contract
whichever is shorter, unless the terms of the contract provide otherwise.

ARTICLE (117)
1. The employer and employee may terminate the employment contract with
unlimited period, for a valid reason at any time after conclusion of the contract
by written notice duly given to other party, thirty days at least prior to
termination.
2. In respect of daily pay employees period of notice shall be as follows:
a. On week in the employee has worked for more than six months but
less than one year.
b. Two weeks if the employee has worked for at least one year.
c. One month if the employee has worked for at least five years.

ARTICLE (118)
The contract shall continue to be valid throughout the period of warning referred to in

*
Amended by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
*
Amended by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
– 32 –

the preceding Article and shall expire with the expiry date of the warning. The
employee shall be entitled to full pay during the notice period on the basis of last pay
he earned, and he shall have to perform his duties during such period if so instructed
by the employer.

It may not be agreed to waive or reduce period of warning but it may be agreed to
increase such period.
ARTICLE (119)
If the employer or the employee has failed to serve notice to the other party for
termination of the contract or has reduced the notice period, the party obliged to serve
the notice shall pay to the other party an indemnity called “Compensation in lieu of
notice”, and it is incurred by the other party as a result of failure to give notice or for
reduction of said period, and the indemnity shall be equal to the employee’s pay for
the notice period in full or in proportion to the diminished part. In regard to
employees on monthly, weekly, daily or per hour work pay the notice allowance shall
be computed on the basis of last pay earned by them. With regard to employees paid
on piece work basis, allowance shall be calculated on the basis of the average daily
pay provided for in Article (57) hereof.

ARTICLE (120)
The employer may dismiss the employee without notice in the following cases:

1. If the employee adopts a false identity or nationality or if he submits forged
documents or certificates.
2. If the employee is appointed under a probationary period and dismissal
occurred during or at the end of said period.
3. If he commits an error causing substantial material loss to the employer
provided that the latter advises the labour department of the incident within 48
hours from having knowledge of the same.
4. If the employee violates instructions concerning safety of the place of business
provided that such instructions are displayed in writing at conspicuous places
and in case of an illiterate employee the latter be informed verbally of the
same.
5. If he fails to perform his basic duties under the contract of employment and
persists in violating them despite formal investigation with him in this respect
and warning him of dismissal if the same is repeated.
6. If he divulges any secrets of the establishment where he is employed.
7. If he is awarded final judgement by the competent court in respect of an
– 33 –

offence prejudicing honour, honesty or public morals.
8. If during working hours he is found drunk or under the influence of drug.
9. If in the course of his work he commits an assault on the employer, the
manager or any of his colleagues.
10. If he absents himself without lawful excuse for more that twenty intermittent
days or for more than seven successive day during one year.

ARTICLE (121)
The employee may leave the service without notice in the following cases:
a. If the employer does not fulfil his obligations towards the employee as
provided for in the contract or in this Law.

b. If the employer of his legal regal representative has committed an act of
assault against the employee.

ARTICLE (122)
Termination by the employer of an employee’s service is considered arbitrary if the
cause for such termination has nothing to do with the work. In particular, termination
is considered arbitrary if the employee’s service has been terminated on grounds, or a
reasonable complaint lodged by him to the competent authorities, or on grounds of a
justifiable action brought by him against the employer.

ARTICLE (123)
*

a. If the employee has been arbitrarily dismissed, the competent court has the
jurisdiction to give judgement against the employer for payment of
compensation to the employee.

The court shall determine the amount of this compensation, taking into
consideration the nature of work sustained by the employee, period of service
and after investigation of dismissal circumstances. Provided that in all cases
the amount of compensation should not exceed the employee’s pay for a
period of three months, to be worked out on the basis of last pay due to him.

b. The provisions of the preceding clause shall not prejudice to the employee’s
entitlement to the gratuity due to him and notice period provided for in this
Law.

*
Amended by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
– 34 –

ARTICLE (124)
The employer may not terminate the service of an employee for his health deficiency
before he avails himself of the leaves lawfully due to him. Any agreement to the
contrary is deemed null and void even if it is made before this Law comes into
operation.

ARTICLE (125)
The employer shall provide the employee at the end of his service and at the latter’s
request with an end of service certificate free of charge. Said Certificate shall include
date of appointment and date of termination, total period of service, nature of work
performed by him and his last pay plus allowances, if any. Certificates or diplomas,
papers and tools belonging to the employee shall be returned to him.

ARTICLE (126)
If any change takes place in the form of the establishment or in its legal status, valid
contracts at the time of change shall continue to exist so between the new employer
and the employees of the establishment, and service shall be deemed to be continuous.
Both the former and the new employers shall jointly be liable for a period of six
months for the fulfillment of obligations arising from contracts of employment in the
period prior to such change and after the lapse of the said period the new employer
shall be solely responsible.

ARTICLE (127)
If work assigned to the employee allows to acquaint with the employer’s clients or
have access to the secrets of his work, the employer may oblige the employee that
after termination of the contract he may not compete with him or take part in any
business interest competitive to the employer’s. Such agreement shall be valid only if
the employee has reached the age of 21 years at the time of its being executed and if
the agreement is limited with respect to the place, time and nature of work to the
extent as is necessary to safeguard the lawful interest of business.

ARTICLE (128)
Any non-national employee who absents himself from work without lawful reasons
prior to the end of the contract for a limited period, may not take up employment
elsewhere even with the consent of the employer for one year after the date on which
he absented himself from duties. And no other employer who is aware of that may
– 35 –

employ or keep such employee in his service during such period.

ARTICLE (129)
If the non-national employee has notified the employer of his desire to terminate the
contract with unlimited period and has absented himself from work before the end of
the legal notice period, he may not take up employment elsewhere before the lapse of
one year from date of absence from work, even with consent of employer, and no
other employer, who is aware of the case may recruit him or keep him in service
before the end of such period.

ARTICLE (130)
The provisions of Article (128) and (129) exempt non-national employee who obtains
prior approval of the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs before taking up another
employment with the approval of the original employer.

ARTICLE (131)
Expenses for repatriation of an employee to his place of origin or any other place
agreed upon by both parties shall be borne by the employer. If the employee after the
end of his contract takes up employment somewhere else, repatriation expenses upon
termination of his service shall be paid by the last employer subject to the provisions
in the preceding clauses, and if the employer has failed to repatriate the employee and
has not paid the repatriation expenses, the competent authorities shall do this at the
employer’s expense by way of attachment. If the cause for termination of contract is
attributed to the employee, his repatriation will be arranged at his own expense if he
has the mean to pay.

ARTICLE (131) (REPEATED)
*

1. In application of the provisions stated in the preceding clause, the expenses of
employer’s repatriation shall mean the cost of his travel ticket and whatever is
provided for in the employment contract or in the bylaws of the
Establishment, such as the employee’s entitlement to travel tickets for his
family and costs for shipment of his luggage.

2. In the cases where the employer provides the employee with accommodation,
the employee shall be obliged to vacate the accommodation within a period not
to exceed thirty days from the date of his service termination.

*
Added by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
– 36 –

3. The employee may not delay vacation of accommodation, thereafter, for any
reason whatsoever, provided that the employer fulfills his obligation towards
the employee with respect to the followings:

a) Expenses defined in Clause (1) under this Article.
b) End of service remuneration and any other dues assumed by the employer
under the employment contract or the bylaws or the Law.

4. However, if the employer raised a dispute with respect to the amount of
expenses and dues referred to above; the competent labour Department shall
determine urgently the amount of such expenses and dues, within one week of
a notification being sent to it, provided always that after such determination is
made by the Labour Dept. the employee must be informed forthwith.

5. In such a case, the validity of the thirty days period referred to in Clause 2
under this Article, shall take effect from the date, the employer deposits the
expenses and dues determined by the labour Department, with the treasury of
Labour Dept. as a trust.

If however the employee has failed to vacate the accommodation after expiry
of the said thirty days, the Labour Department, in cooperation with the
competent authorities in the concerned Emirate, will take the necessary
administrative action to secure vacation.

6. No provisions under this Article is deemed to prejudice the right of employee
to litigate thereabout before the competent court.

Article (131-a-1)
*

1- Employer shall undertake to submit a bank guarantee to the competent labour
department. The type, amount, procedures and companies and establishments
subject to this condition, as well as other relevant provisions shall be defined
by a Cabinet Resolution. Such guarantee shall be for the good performance of
the employer’s obligations stipulated in Articles 131 and 131-a herein.

2.Deduction of amounts from the bank guarantee mentioned in para (1) of

*
Added by Federal Law No. (14) of 1999.
– 37 –

present article shall be by virtue of a court judgement, except for the
following:

1. Return expenses of the employee to his home country or
wherever as agreed with employer.

2. Amounts acknowledged by employer before the competent
labour department as entitlements of employee. In both cases,
the Ministry may deduct such entitlements from the guarantee
referred to in Para (1) hereof and pay the same to the employee
to settle his dues.

SECTION (2)
END OF SERVICE REMUNERATION

ARTICLE (132)
*

The employee who has completed one year or more in the continuous service, is
entitled to the end of service remuneration at the end of his service. Days of absence
from work without pay are not included in computing the period of service, and the
remuneration is to be calculated as follows :-

1. Twenty one day’s pay for each year of the first five years of service.

2. Thirty days pay for each additional year.

Provided that the entire total remuneration shall not exceed two year’s pay.

ARTICLE (133)
The employee shall be entitled to end of service remuneration in respect of fractions
of the year payable pro rata to the time actually worked provided that he has
completed one year of continuous service.

ARTICLE (134)
**

“Without prejudice to the provisions of some laws regarding the granting of pensions

*
Amended by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986
**
Amended by Federal Law No. (15) of 1985.
– 38 –

and gratuities to employees of some establishments, the end of service gratuity shall
be computed on the basis of last wage which the employee was entitled to, in respect
of those drawing their salary per month, week or day, and on the basis of average
daily wage stipulated in Article (57) in respect of those drawing their wages on piece
work basis. The wage which is considered as basis for computation of the end of
service gratuity shall not include anything given to the labourer in kind, housing
allowance, transport allowance, travel allowance, overtime allowance, representation
allowance, cashier’s allowance, children education allowance, recreation and social
services allowance or any other allowances”.

ARTICLE (135)
The employer may deduct any amounts due to him from the employee’s end of
service remuneration.

ARTICLE (136)
In fulfillment of the provisions of Article (132), cases of employment preceding the
effective date of this Law shall not be considered as cases entitling the employee to
end of service gratuity. Without prejudice to rights acquired by the employee under
any repealed labour law or contracts of employment, agreements, by-laws or
regulations of the establishment. In the event of his death, the employee’s gratuity
shall be paid to his legal heirs.

ARTICLE (137)
If an employee under a contract with unlimited period has left his work at his own
option after a continuous service of not less than one year and not more than three
years, he shall be entitled to one third of the end of service gratuity provided for in
the previous Article.

If the period of his continued service is more than 3 years and less than 5 years he
becomes entitled to 2/3 of the said gratuity, but if his continued service exceeds 5
years, he becomes entitled to the entire gratuity.

ARTICLE (138)

If an employee under a contract with limited period leaves his work at his own option
before the end of the contract period he shall not be entitled to end of service gratuity
unless the period of his continuous service exceeds five years.

– 39 –

ARTICLE (139)
The employee shall be fully deprived of the end of service gratuity in any of the
following cases:

a. if he is dismissed from service for any reason in accordance with Article (120)
of this Law or if he leaves his work to avoid dismissal in accordance with the
provisions of this Article.

b. If he leaves his work willingly and without notice in cases other than those
enumerated in Article (121) under this law with respect to unlimited period
contracts or before he completes five years of continuous service with respect
to limited period contracts.

ARTICLE (140)
In any establishment where a saving fund is raised for employees and if the
regulations of such fund provide that payments made by the employer to the fund for
the account of employee is a legal commitment against the end of service gratuity, the
amount of savings or benefits due hereunder shall be paid whichever is greater. If the
fund regulations have no provisions that amounts paid by employers is a legal
commitment for the end of service gratuity, the employee shall collect amount due to
him from the saving fund in addition to the legal gratuity.

ARTICLE (141)
In any establishment where a pension or security schemes or similar schemes are
maintained, the employee who is entitled to retirement pension may select either this
latter or the prescribed gratuity or whichever from both thus is more favourable to
him.

CHAPTER VIII
INDEMNITY FOR LABOUR ACCIDENTS
AND OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES

ARTICLE (142)
If the employee sustains a labour injury or occupational disease as enumerated in
Schedule (1) and (2) attached to this Law, the employer or its representative must
report the accident instantly to the Police and Labour Department or any of its
branches having jurisdiction over the place of business.

– 40 –

The report must include employee’s name, age, vocation, address, and nationality in
addition to a brief description of the accident, its circumstances and the arrangements
made for the employee’s medical aid or treatment.

The police shall carry out necessary investigation, upon receipt of the report which
contains statements of witnesses and employer or his representative and statement of
injured if his condition so allows, and the report must indicate in particular if the
accident is related to work, and whether it was deliberate or a result of gross
misconduct on the part of the employee.

ARTICLE (143)
Following the investigation, the police must send a copy of the report to the Labour
Department and another to the employer. The Labour Department may request that
the investigation be completed or otherwise it shall have the investigation directly
completed if it is deemed necessary.

ARTICLE (144)

In cases of Labour accidents and occupational diseases the employer shall pay the
employee’s treatment expenses at government or private hospitals until he recovers or
his disability is proven. Treatment includes admission in hospitals or sanitorium, and
surgical operation, X-ray and laboratory fees in addition to medicines and
rehabilitation equipment purchased, artificial limbs and apparatus provided to the
disabled persons. Moreover, the employer must pay the transport expenses arising
from the treatment of employee.

ARTICLE (145)
If the injury prevents the employee from carrying out his duties, the employer must
pay him a financial subsidy equal to full pay throughout the period of treatment or for
a period of six months, whichever is shorter. If treatment lasts from more than six
months, said subsidy shall be reduced to the half for another period of six months or
until the employee recovers from illness or his disability becomes certain or he dies
whichever occurs first.

ARTICLE (146)
Financial subsidy referred to in the preceding Article is calculated on the basis of last
pay received by the employee in respect of employees who receive monthly, weekly,
daily, hourly wages and on the basis of the daily average pay provided in Article (57)
– 41 –

with respect to employees on piece work pay.

ARTICLE (147)
The medical practitioner in charge shall at the end of treatment make a duplicate
report, a copy of which shall be handed to the employee and the other to the
employer, and shall defined in the report kind and cause of injury, date of accident,
its relation to work and period of treatment and whether the employee has sustained
permanent infirmity, or otherwise and degree of disability, if any, and whether such
disability is total or partial as well as his ability to carry on duties with the existing
disability.

ARTICLE (148)
If a dispute arises in connection with the extent of employee’s physical fitness for
work or grade of disability or other matters related to injury or treatment, the question
must be referred to the Minister of Health through the competent Labour Department.
A medical board comprising three government physicians shall be formed by the
Ministry of Health each time such dispute is referred to it to decide the extent of the
employee’s physical fitness for service or grade of his disability or any matter related
to the injury and treatment. The board may consult with specialized experts and the
decision of the board shall be final and forwarded to the Labour Department to take
necessary steps for its execution.

ARTICLE (149)
If the employee dies as a result of a labour accident or occupational disease, the
employee’s family members shall be entitled to an indemnity equal to the basic pay of
the employee for a period of 24 months, provided that the amount of indemnity shall
not be less than eighteen thousand Dirhams and not more than thirty five thousand
Dirhams. The amount of indemnity shall be calculated on the basis of the last pay
earned by the employee prior to his death. Such indemnity shall be distributed among
the beneficiaries of the deceased employee in accordance with the provisions of the
schedule attached hereto.

In application of the provisions of this Article, the term “members of the deceased
family” shall mean such persons who at the time of death of the employee used to be
entirely or mainly supported by the income of deceased, that is:

a. Widow or widower
– 42 –

b. Children, namely:

1. Sons who have reached the age of 17 years and those who regularly
attend schools and have not completed 24 years of age, or those who
mentally or physically are incapable to earn living.
The term sons includes sons of the husband or of the wife who were
under the guardianship of the deceased at time of his death;
2. Unmarried daughters, including the daughters of the husband or wife
who are not married and at the time of death were under the
guardianship of the deceased.
3. Parents;
4. Brothers and sisters according to terms provided for sons and
daughters.

ARTICLE (150)
If labour accident or occupational disease results in a permanent partial disability of
the employee, he shall be entitled to indemnity in accordance with rates enumerated in
the two schedules attached to this Law multiplied by the amount of death indemnity
prescribed in the first paragraph of the preceding Article, as the case may be.

ARTICLE (151)
The amount of indemnity due to the employee in the event of a permanent total
disability shall be equal to that due in the event of death.

ARTICLE (152)
The Minister of Labour and Social Affairs may if necessary and in agreement with the
Minister of Health, amend the occupational diseases in Schedule (1) and indemnity of
disability in Schedule (2) attached to this Law.

ARTICLE (153)
Neither the injured employee nor the members of his family shall be entitled to
indemnity in respect of injury or disability if it has not caused death and if the
investigations by the competent authorities have established that the employee has
deliberately caused injury to himself with intention of committing suicide or to obtain
indemnity or sick leave or otherwise, or if the employee was at the time of the
incident under the influence of drug or alcoholic drinks, or if he has wilfully violated
safety instructions displayed conspicuously at the place of business or if his injury or
disability resulted from serious premeditated misdemeanor on his part or if he has
– 43 –

refused unreasonably the medical checkup or treatment as prescribed by the medical
board formed in accordance with the provisions of Article (148).

In any of the cases hereinabove, the employer shall not be under obligation to provide
treatment or any financial subsidy to the employee.

CHAPTER IX
COLLECTIVE LABOUR DISPUTES

ARTICLE (154)
Collective labour disputes means any dispute between the employer and his
employees, concerning common interests for all or part of the employees in an
establishment or vocation or a certain profession or in any specific vocational sector.

ARTICLE (155)
If a dispute arises between an employer(s) and all or part of his/their employees and
both parties fail to reach an amicable settlement, the following steps shall be taken:

1. The employees shall submit their complaint in writing to the employer and
simultaneously dispatch a copy thereof to the Labour Department.

2. The employer shall reply in writing to the complaint or claims of the
employees within seven working days from date of receipt of the complaint. A
simultaneous copy thereof shall be submitted to the Labour Department at the
same time.

3. If the employer fails to submit his reply to the complaint within the fixed
period or if his reply does not result in settlement of the dispute, the competent
Labour Department of its own motion or at request of either party shall
mediate to settle the dispute amicably.

4. If the complaint is made by the employer, he must submit the complaint
directly to the Labour Department to mediate for an amicable settlement of the
dispute.

ARTICLE (156)
If mediation efforts by the competent Labour Department have failed to reach a
– 44 –

settlement on the dispute within 10 days from date of the Department’s knowledge
thereof the Department must refer the dispute to the competent conciliation board for
settlement and notify both parties of its decision in writing.

ARTICLE (157)
In each Labour Dept. a board is to be set up and called the Conciliation Board, and
for this purpose a decision shall be taken by the Minister of Labour and Social Affair.

ARTICLE (158)
Each party to the dispute shall follow-up the matter before the Conciliation Board
until a decision is awarded and the Board shall issue its decision by majority within
two weeks from date on which the dispute was referred to it.

The decision shall be binding on both parties only if they have agreed in writing
before the Board to accept it decision. If such agreement is not made, either party or
both parties may challenge the Board’s decision before the Supreme Arbitration
Committee within thirty days from date on which decision was made, otherwise, the
decision shall be deemed to be final and enforceable.

ARTICLE (159)
Rescission of employment contract or dismissal of the employees’ representatives who
are members of the Conciliation Board shall not prevent performance of their duties
on the Board unless the employees elect other representatives.

ARTICLE (160)
A Committee called the Supreme Arbitration Committee is to be formed for
Settlement of collective Labour Dispute, at the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs,
composed as follows:
1. The Minister of Labour as Chairman, and in his absence the Under Secretary
or the Director – General of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs shall
replace him.

2. A judge of the Supreme Federal Court is nominated by the General Assembly
of this Court as a member and appointed by order of the Minister of Justice.

3. A person with experience and knowledge in labour matters and known for his
impartiality is appointed as member by order of the Minister of Labour and
Social Affairs. Two alternate members may be selected from the two
– 45 –

categories of the two regular members to act for them in their absence.
Appointment of regular and alternate members shall be valid for three
renewable years, and renewal shall take place in the same manner as the
appointment.

ARTICLE (161)
The Supreme Arbitration Committee for settlement of collective labour disputes shall
have the powers to issue final and conclusive judgements on all disputes referred to it
by the concerned parties. Decisions of said Committee shall be taken by majority the
grounds shall be stated.

ARTICLE (162)
In accordance with a proposal from the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs, and in
consultation with the Minister of Justice, a decision shall be taken by the Council of
Ministers regulating litigation proceedings and other rules necessary for the good
progress of the work before the Conciliation Boards and the Supreme Arbitration
Committee for solving Collective Labour disputes. For the purpose of performing
their functions these Boards and Committees may inspect papers and documents,
records and other evidences and compel persons in possession of the same to submit
these materials. They may also enter the establishment to conduct necessary
investigation and to take whatever measures that are deemed to be necessary for
settlement of the dispute.

ARTICLE (163)
*

Neither party to the dispute my again raise the conflict regarding which a final
judgement has been given by any of the Boards referred to herein, unless with the
mutual agreement of both parties to the dispute.

ARTICLE (164)
The Boards referred to herein, shall apply the provisions of this Law, the laws in
force and the rules of Islamic Sharia as well as any other customary rules, principles
of justice, natural and comparative laws which are consistent therewith.

ARTICLE (165)
The decisions rendered by the Supreme Committee of Arbitration in settlement of
collective labour disputes shall be enforced with the cooperation of the competent

*
Amended by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
– 46 –

authorities in each Emirate.

CHAPTER X
LABOUR INSPECTION

ARTICLE (166)
Labour inspection shall be undertaken by specialized inspectors attached to the
Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, and having the prerogatives and powers
provided for in this law. Labour inspectors shall carry cards issued by the Ministry of
labour and Social Affairs certifying their capacity.

ARTICLE (167)
Labour inspectors shall have the following powers:
a. Control the proper implementation of the provisions of the Labour Law
particularly in respect of the conditions of work, remuneration and protection
and safety of employees during the performance of their duties and such other
matters related to the health and safety of employees and the employment of
juveniles and women.

b. Supply employers and employees with information and technical guidance to
enable them adopt the best methods for the implementation of the provisions
of this law.

c. Report to competent authorities, any problems which the existing rules cannot
remedy and to propose whatever is necessary to this .

d. Make report of cases found in violation of the provisions of the Labour Law,
regulations and decisions issued for their implementation.

ARTICLE (168)
Before assuming their functions, labour inspectors shall take an oath before the
Minister of Labour and Social Affairs that they will honour law, perform their duties
sincerely and honestly and that even after cessation from their present posts they shall
not divulge any secret or industrial trade mark or other secrets which may come to
their knowledge ex officio, and to treat the complaints received by them in full
secrecy and shall not disclose to employer or to his agents the contents of such
complaints.

– 47 –

ARTICLE (169)
The employers and their agents must provide the inspectors designated to perform
labour inspection, with , all such necessary facilities and information for the
performance of their functions and to comply with the summons to appear before
them and to send their representatives when they are requested to do so.

ARTICLE (170)
The labour inspector shall have the following powers:

1. Enter any establishment governed by the provisions of this Law at any time of
the day or night without prior notice provided he performs that during
working hours.

2. Carry out any inspection or investigation as may be necessary to ensure the
proper implementation of the Law, and in particular he shall :

a. Interrogate the employer or employees either alone or in presence of
witnesses in respect of any matter related to implementation of the
provisions of the Law.

b. Inspect all documents required to be kept in accordance with the
provisions of the Labour Law and decisions made in execution thereof
and to obtain photocopies and extracts therefrom.

c. Take one or more samples of materials used or related to the industrial
operations or in other operations subject to inspection if such materials
are believed to be harmful to the health or safety of employees, in
order to have them analyzed in government laboratories to determine
the extent of harm and inform the employer or his representative of the
results and to take appropriate measures in this regard.
d. Ensure that notices and publications are displayed conspicuously at the
place of business in accordance with the provisions of the Law.

ARTICLE (171)
The Minister of Labour and Social Affairs shall issue the necessary regulations for
organizing inspection measures stipulated in the preceding Article.

ARTICLE (172)
Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 169 hereinabove, any person carrying
– 48 –

out inspection must notify the employer or its representative of his presence unless he
believes that the purpose of inspection requires otherwise.

ARTICLE (173)
A labour inspector may, in order to secure the compliance with the provisions
concerning the health and safety of the employees, instruct the employers or their
representatives to alter the machines and equipment used by them and to perform this
within the time-limits prescribed by him. And in the event where an imminent danger
threatens the health and safety of the employees, he may impose any necessary
measures aiming at averting such danger immediately.

ARTICLE (174)
If during an inspection visit, the inspector finds any violation of this Law, regulations
or executive decisions, he shall report the violation in writing and refer the same to
the competent Labour Department for necessary action against the offender.

ARTICLE (175)
The labour inspector may, if necessary , request the competent administrative
authorities and policemen to provide necessary help.

In cases where inspection relates to health aspects of the business the inspector must,
with the consent of the director of the concerned Labour Department be accompanied
by a specialized physician from the Ministry of Health or the physician appointed for
this purpose.
ARTICLE (176)
The Chief Labour Inspector shall make a monthly report on the activities of labour
inspection, areas of inspection, and organizations inspected, number and nature of
contraventions made and to make an annual report on inspection in the area showing
results and effects of inspection and whatever remarks and proposals he may have
with a copy of the monthly and annual reports to be sent to the Labour Department.

ARTICLE (177)
The Ministry of Labour shall prepare an annual report on inspection in the State,
containing the role played by the Ministry in supervising the application of the Labour
Law, and in particular, the following matters:

1. A statement on the provisions regulating inspection.
2. A statement on officials having the authority to inspect.
3. Statistic in respect of inspected establishments, number of employees, number
of visits and inspection visits made by the inspectors, as well as violations
committed and penalties imposed labour accidents and cases of occupational
diseases.
– 49 –

ARTICLE (178)
Forms for violation reports, inspection registers, notices and warnings, as well as
appropriate regulations to maintain and use them, are to be made and circulated by the
Ministry of Labour to labour Departments in different areas.

ARTICLE (179)
Subject to the priority given to nationals and to the general pre-requisite conditions for
appointment of employees, the labour inspectors are required to :

1. Have the character of complete impartiality.
2. Have no direct interest in the establishments they inspect.
3. Pass a special test in behaviour, following a training course of at least three
months.

ARTICLE (180)
Special training courses for labour inspectors shall be organized by the Ministry of
Labour, during which the inspectors shall in particular receive training on the
following:

1. Principles of organization of inspection visits and contact with the employers
and employees.

2. Methods of checking registers and books.

3. Principles of guidance of the employers on the interpretation of and the results
obtained from the application of the Law provisions, and assisting them in the
implementation of such provisions.

4. Basic principles of industrial technology and safety methods against labour
accidents and occupational diseases.

5. Basic principles of self-sufficient production and its effect on maintaining
favourable conditions for the performance of the work.

CHAPTER XI
PENALTIES

ARTICLE (181)

*
Amended by Federal Law No. (12) of 1986.
*
– 50 –

Without prejudice to any severe penalty provided for in another law of imprisonment
for a period not to exceed six months, and a fine not less than Dhs three thousand and
not more than Dhs. ten thousand or either of the two penalties shall be inflicted to:
1. Any person who violates any of the obligatory provisions of this Law or any
of the executive regulations or orders issued thereunder.

2. Any person who hinders or prevents any of the official assigned to enforce the
provisions of this Law or any of is executive regulations or resolutions, or
whoever attempts or starts to prevent him form performing his job either by
force or violence or by threatening to use force or violence.

3. An official entrusted with the implementations of the provisions hereof and
who disclose any confidential matter in respect of work, or any industrial
patent or any other activities of work which may have come to his knowledge,
in the course of his assignment, even though he has left the work.

ARTICLE (182)
Execution of judgements to pay fines may not be stayed. Fines imposed on the
employer shall vary in accordance with the number of employees regarding whom the
violation was committed, provided that the total amount of the penalty imposed shall
not exceed three times the maximum limit of the fine fixed . The provisions of this
Article shall apply on the cases where a violation is committed against the following
rules and any regulations and orders issued in implementation thereto :

1. Violation of the provisions of Article 13.
2. Violation of the provisions of Section 2 and 3 of Chapter II.
3. Violation of the provisions of Chapter III.
4. Violation of the provisions of Articles 114, 124, 125, 128 129, 142 and 144.

ARTICLE (183)
In the event where an offence is committed again before the lapse of one year form
the act of a judgement being rendered against the perpetrator in respect of a similar
offence, the Court may inflict the double of the penalty.

ARTICLE (184)
Subject to the provisions stipulated in Articles 34, 41 and 126 criminal proceedings
may be filed against the General Manager who is responsible for the management of
the establishment and against the employer if circumstances give the belief that he was
not unaware of the facts constituting the violation.

ARTICLE (185)
If the employer has not fulfilled his obligations hereunder the competent Labour
– 51 –

Department may issue a decision showing the subject of violation, and instructing the
employer to complete the work within a period to be fixed from date on which he has
been notified, otherwise the Department shall carry out such work at the expense of
the employer and collect costs by way of sequestration.

ARTICLE (186)
In application of the provisions of this Law, the regulations and decisions in execution
thereof, the Labour Department shall not in as far as possible, resort to criminal
proceedings except after advise and guidance ar given to the employers and employees
involved in the violation and when necessary warning is given to them in writing to
rectify their situation in accordance with the Law, before initiating any procedure.

CHAPTER XII
CONCLUDING PROVISIONS

ARTICLE (187)

The Minister of Labour shall take a decision establishing Labour Departments and
offices vested with powers to implement this law and determine their areas of
jurisdiction.

ARTICLE (188)
The Directors of Labour Departments and Officials of the Inspection Section at the
Ministry of Labour shall be vested with Judiciary capacity for the implementation of
this Law, regulations, decisions and orders issued in execution thereof.

ARTICLE (189)
Any provision inconsistent with the provisions of this Law is hereby repealed.

ARTICLE (190)
Without prejudice to the cases under this Law regarding the exemption from fees, the
Minister of Labour shall determine in a decision given by him the fees due for the
issue of Labour recruitment offices licenses, employment visas, work permits,
renewal and issue of copies thereof provided that such fee shall not exceed Dh. 500
(five hundred only).

ARTICLE (191)
According to a proposal by the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs the Council of
Ministry may issue rules which are more beneficial to national employees.

ARTICLE (192)

– 52 –

The Ministry of Labour shall take the necessary decisions for the enforcement of the
provisions of this law, and Ministers according to their areas of jurisdiction shall put
such rules into effect.

ARTICLE (193)

This Law shall be published in the Official Gazette and shall take effect sixty days
after the date of its publication.

Zayed Bin Sultan Al- Nahyan
President of
The United Arab Emirates

Presidential Court – Abu Dhabi
6 Jumadi Ul Thani 1400 Ah
Corresponding to 20 April, 1980 AD.

– 53 –

SCHEDULE NO. 1
OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES

Sr. No. DISEASE OCCUPATION CAUSING THE
DISEASE
1. Poisoning by lead and its
compounds
2. Poisoning by mercury and its
compounds
3. Poisoning by arsenic and its
compounds.
4. Poisoning by antimony and its
compounds.
5. Poisoning by phosphorus and its
compounds.
6. Poisoning by products, benzene or
its homologues or any compounds
or derivatives thereof.
7. Poisoning by manganese and its
compounds.
Any occupation which requires use
or handling of lead or its compounds
containing lead.
Any occupation requiring use or
handling of mercury or its
compounds or any items containing
mercury or exposure to mercury
dust or gases or its compounds or
items containing mercury.
Any occupation requiring use or
handling or arsenic or its
compounds or any items containing
arsenic or exposure to dust or gases
of arsenic or its compounds or items
containing arsenic .
Any occupation requiring use or
handling of antimony or its
compounds or any items containing
antimony or exposure to dust or
gases of antimony or its compounds
or items containing antinomy.
Any occupation requiring use or
handling of phosphorus or its
compounds or exposure to the dust
or gases of phosphorus or its
compounds or items containing
phosphorus.
Any occupation requiring use or
handling of such products or any
work requiring exposure to its dust
or gases.
Any occupation requiring use or
handling of manganese or its
compounds or any items containing
manganese or exposure to the dust
– 54 –

Sr. No. DISEASE OCCUPATION CAUSING THE
DISEASE
8. Poisoning by sulfuric metal and its
compounds.
9. Poisoning by petroleum, its gases,
derivatives or compounds.
10. Poisoning by chloroform or carbon
tetrachloride.
11. Diseases resulting from Radium or
radio-active (X-rays).
12. Chronic skin disease and burns of
the skin and the eye.
13. Eye affections from the heat and
light, and the consequences of such
affections.
or gases of manganese or any other
items with manganese content.
Any occupation requiring use or
handling of sulfuric metal or its
compounds or any items having
sulfuric content or exposure to the
dust and gases of sulfuric metal and
its compounds or any items having
sulfuric content.
Any occupation requiring use or
handling of benzene and its
derivatives or its compounds or
exposure to the dust or vapors of
benzene whether in solid, liquid or
gaseous form.
Any occupation requiring use or
handling of chloroform or carbon
tetrachloride or exposure to the
gases containing them.
Any occupation requiring exposure
or radium or any other radio-active
substance or X=rays.
Any occupation requiring use or
handling of tar or coal tar
equipment, mineral oil or kerosene
(or cement, flour or similar dust or
any of their compounds, products or
residues).
Any occupation requiring recurrent
or continuous exposure to reflection
of light, heat or radiation emitted by
molten glass, hot or molten metals
or exposure to powerful light and
high temperature that could cause
harm to eye or sight.
14. Pneumoconioses resulting from :
1.Silicosis (Silicon dust)
2.Asbestosis (Asbestos dust)
Any occupation requiring exposure
to silicon dust or any items with
silicon content in a concentration of
– 55 –

Sr. No. DISEASE OCCUPATION CAUSING THE
DISEASE
3.Byssinosis (cotton dust) more than 5%, such as work in rock
cement factories, sandblasting of
metals or any other occupation
requiring a similar exposure, as well
as any work requiring exposure to
asbestos or cotton dust to such an
extent as to result in such a disease.
15. Anthrax Any work requiring contact with
animals affected by such a disease or
with their skins, horns and hair.
16. Glanders Any works requiring contact with
animals affected by this disease.
17. Pulmonary Tuberculosis Any work in hospitals providing
treatment patients affected by this
disease.
18. Enteric Fever Any work in hospitals specialized in
the treatment of this disease.
– 56 –

SCHEDULE NO. 2
PERMANENT DISABILITY COMPENSATION ASSESSMENT

___________________________________________________________________________________

DISABILITY S/R NATURE OF PERMANENT DISABILITY PERCENTAGE
DEGREE
___________________________________________________________________________________

Total 1Loss of both arms from the shoulder
or loss of any two or more limbs 100
2 Total loss of sight or loss of both eyes 100
3 Total paralysis 100
4 Imbecility or total mental deficiency 100
5 Injuries or accidents to the head or skull
causing continuous headache 100
6 Total disfigurement of face. 100
7 Injuries and accidents to the chest and
internal organs causing permanent and
total inability to function normally 100
___________________________________________________________________________________

Partial 8 Loss of both legs from the thigh 90
9 Loss of both arms from elbow or above 85
10 Excessive disfigurement of the face 80
11 Total loss of both hands from the elbow
12 Total loss of right arm from shoulder joint or from the elbow 70
13 Loss of both legs from the knee or above 70
14 Total loss of left arm from the shoulder
joint or from the elbow 60
15 Loss of one leg from the knee or above 60
16 Loss of right arm from the elbow or below. 60
17 Loss of one leg from the thigh 60
18 Loss of both legs from below the knee 60
19 Total loss of tight hand including thumb 60
20 Loss of left arm from above or below the elbow 50
21 Loss of the left hand fingers including thumb 50
22 Loss of one leg below the knee 50
23 Total and permanent loss of hearing 50
24 Loss of tongue or permanent dumbness 45
25 Loss of both feet from the ankle or below 45
26 Loss of genital organ 45
27 Loss of sight of one eye 45
28 Loss of right hand from the wrist 38
29 Loss of thumb or four fingers of the right hand. 35
30 Loss of left hand from the wrist 34
31Loss of thumb or four of the left hand fingers 25

___________________________________________________________________________________

– 57 –

DISABILITY S/R NATURE OF PERMANENT DISABILITY PERCENTAGE
DEGREE
___________________________________________________________________________________

Partial 32 Loss of one foot from the ankle or below 20
33 Loss of all toes of one foot including the big toe 20
34 Loss of three of the right hand fingers excluding the thumb 15
35 Loss of the index finger of the right hand 15
36 Loss of the phalanges joint of the right hand thumb 10
37 Loss of the index finger of the left hand 10
38 Loss of three of the left hand fingers excluding the thumb 10
39 Loss of all toes foot of one excluding the big toe 10
40 Loss of big toe of one foot 10
41 Loss of the last phalanges joint of the left foot great toe. 6
42 Loss of the right hand middle finger 6
43 Loss of the left hand middle finger 6
44 Loss of the right hand annular finger 6
45 Loss of the left hand annular finger 6
46 Loss of the right hand auricular finger 6
47 Loss of one finger of the left hand 6
48 Loss of the phalanges joint of any finger
excluding the thumb 5
49 Loss of the right hand index finger second joint 5
50 Loss of the foot toes excluding the great toe 5
51 Loss of one molar tooth 3
52 Loss of one canine tooth 2
___________________________________________________________________________________

1. Total incapacity to use any organ of the body or part thereof is considered equal to total loss of
such organ or part of the body.

2. If the person injured is a left – handed the compensation hereinabove provided for the left hand
shall be the same as for the right hand.

3. In the case of marring, disfigurement or unnatural alternation of any organ or part of the body or

any sense not covered by the above schedule, the rate of disability shall be estimated, in case of
dispute, by the medical board referred to in Article 148 hereof which shall take into consideration
nearest similar case in the above schedule.
– 58 –

SCHEDULE NO. (3)
TERMS AND PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE DISTRIBUTION
OF THE DEATH COMPENSATION AMONG THE FAMILY MEMBERS
OF THE DECEASED EMPLOYEE

1. In the presence of the widow/widower with parents and the child who were in
the care of deceased, the compensation shall be distributed in such a way that
the widower shall get one eighth and the widows, if more than one, shall have
one eighth divided equally among them, the father shall have on third, and both
parents shall have one third equally between them, and the rest to the child.
Should there be no child, the widower or widows, if more than one, shall get
two thirds of compensation, the father shall have the rest, and if both parents are
alive, they shall have the rest to be divided equally between them.

In the absence of the parents the widow/widower shall have one eighth provided
it is divided equally among widows if more than one, and the child shall have
the rest . In the absence of either a child or a father with the widower/widow,
the latter, shall have the full compensation provided it is divided equally
between widows if more than one.

2. In the presence of a father and a child who were under the care of the deceased
but in absence of a widow, the child shall have two thirds and the rest to the
father or equally to both parents if they are still in existence.

3. In the presence of children used to be supported by the deceased employee, and
in absence of the widower, widow, parent, or parents, or brothers or sisters who
were supported by him, the compensation shall be distributed among the
children equally, and if there is only one child he shall have the full amount of
the compensation.

4. In the presence of parents who were supported by the deceased employee
without children, widow or widower, the compensation shall be distributed
between the parents equally. Unless only one parent exists he/she shall have the
full compensation. Brothers and sisters supported by the employee prior to his
death shall have the same share as parents in the absence of the latters.

Note: We don’t own the information posted here, we just publish this information to guide visitors about the new uae labor law.

 


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